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Gemstone Education




Topaz can be found in a variety of colors, but often, it comes colorless. Labs then can manipulate and treat the gemstone to be different colors. The most common colored topaz is yellow. The most popular, blue topaz, is usually treated since natural blue topaz is rare. Red and pink topazes are hard to find, therefore, are incredibly valuable. Today, topaz can be found in various locations around the world.

Topaz symbolizes love and passion. It can give the owner strength; both mentally and physically.

Topaz Care Practices: Topaz is not tough, due to its chemical composition. Dropping it or knocking it against hard surfaces might cause it to crack. To preserve its color, try not to expose it under extreme heat. The best way to clean the gem is to use warm soapy water and a soft brush.



People usually think of a red gemstone when it comes to garnet, but it actually has a wide variety of colors. The most common ones are in hues of red, orange, yellow, and green. Garnet is a collection of gemstones that have similar chemical compositions, creating each garnet to have a different color and name.

Garnets are said to keep the owners safe and away from evil spirits and diseases. They  symbolize trust and friendship making this is a great choice of gift for your friends.

Garnet Care Practices: To clean garnets, you may use warm soapy water and a soft brush. Please note that while ultrasonic cleaners are safe, steam cleaners are not because garnets are vulnerable to extreme temperature changes.



Usually, when we talk about diamonds, we are referring to colorless diamonds. But there are also fancy-colored diamonds, which are rarer and more valuable. The color of diamonds covers the colors of the rainbow and more. Since fancy-colored diamonds are difficult to find, laboratories sometimes treat colorless diamonds to become colored. Make sure to always ask if the gemstone is color-treated. Click here to learn more about diamonds.

Diamonds represent eternal love, and that is why they are on engagement rings and wedding bands. They are a perfect gift for your loved ones.

Diamond Care Practices: Diamonds are the hardest material on earth, but this does not mean they do not chip. Ultrasonic and steam cleaners are safe to use unless the gemstone has a feather inclusion. When in doubt, use warm soapy water and a soft cloth.



Sapphires, along with rubies, belong to a mineral group called the corundum. Red corundum is called ruby, while the other colors are sapphires. Sapphire is well-known for its rich, deep blue color. Like garnets and diamonds, they can be found in other colors like pink, purple, and orange.

Sapphire has always been a favorite of royal families’. It represents faith, loyalty, and wisdom.

Sapphire Care Practices: Like rubies, sapphires can be cleaned with ultrasonic or steam cleaners if they are not oil or glass-filled. If you are not sure, then use warm water with some mild detergent.



Rubies are known as the “king of gems”. It belongs to a mineral group called the corundum, along with sapphires. The color of rubies includes a variety of reds, but if the gemstone appears too orange or too pink, then it is no longer considered as a ruby but a fancy-colored sapphire.

The color of rubies represents passion and love. It is said that rubies bring the owner harmony.

Ruby Care Practices: Rubies are the second hardest gemstone on earth next to diamonds, so they can be cleaned with ultrasonic or steam cleaners, unless they are oiled or glass-filled.



Emerald is one of the most treasured gemstones. In the finest quality, it could be more valuable than diamonds. The color of this gemstone is in different shades of green; some with shimmering blue or yellow.

Emeralds are thought to bring hope will to the owner.

Emerald Care Practices: Although emeralds have good hardness, they are a bit brittle. Try to avoid sudden temperature changes and machinery for cleaning. Some cold water and a soft brush would be a better alternative for polishing the gemstone



Like its name, aquamarine captures the blues of the sea. The color is usually of a lighter shade, some even have a gleaming hint of green. Aquamarine is very popular among buyers, and one reason is that the blue easily compliments any other color. Rough aquamarines are very easy to cut, making it an ideal gemstone for jewelry.

Both “aqua” and “marine” are related to the ocean, so aquamarines are believed to bring good luck to sailors and keep them safe on their journeys. They can also help people build up the courage to find happiness in their lives.

Aquamarines Care Practices: Aquamarines are very durable, so there are no special precautions to be aware of. Both ultrasonic and steam cleaners are okay for cleaning, but warm soapy water and a soft brush will also help to restore its shine.



Amethysts are the most valuable gemstones in the quartz group. Amethyst’s color is in the range of purple and violet-blue. Under extreme heat, garnets could fade away to an orangeish color, which are then sold as Citrines.

In the ancient times, amethysts were said to protect their owners from seduction and intoxication, hence worn by many royal and religious figures. Today, it represents tranquility and peace.

Amethyst Care Practices: Warm soapy water and a soft brush can be used to clean amethysts. Ultrasonic cleaners are safe to use, but steam cleaners will cause a fade in color.



Pearl is special because it is the only gemstone that grows inside of a living creature. Pearls were found in mussels and oysters from the ocean, these pearls are known as the natural pearls. Today, more pearls are cultured and harvested. Pearls can be found in a variety of colors, mainly white, cream, peach, and black. 

Pearls represent purity, class, and wealth. It is said that they can bring peace and a life of stability to the owner.

Pearl Care Practices: Pearl is a very sophisticated gem, so it requires the owner to be careful. Avoid heat and chemicals, and try not to put pearls in a dry environment. Both steam and ultrasonic cleaners should not be used to clean pearls, instead, wipe them clean with a soft cloth.



Alexandrite was first found in the 1800s in Russia and named after the tsar Alexander II. This gemstone has the ability to change its color. It appears to be green in daylight, but under artificial lights, it changes to purplish-red. This feature makes Alexandrites very unique. Unfortunately, the supply is scarce, so many are actually synthetically made.

This gemstone is said to bring balance into one’s life. Allegedly, it is good for the heart; both physically and emotionally.

Alexandrites Care Practices: Alexandrites are very hard and tough, therefore they don’t require any special care.



As the birthstone of August, Peridot has the perfect color that suits the summer season. It is usually found in a light yellowish-green color with a sparkling hint of gold, however, some Peridots can be a bit darker. The luster of a Peridot does not change even under incandescent light, which is why another name for it is the “evening emerald”.

Peridot stands for strength. Believably, they can also help drive away nightmares.

Peridot Care Practices: Peridot is one of the softer gemstones for jewelry, so one should  be careful when wearing it. Try not to expose it to extreme temperature changes and avoid machinery for cleaning. It is best to just use warm water and mild detergent.



The word “opal” came from the Greek word “opallios”, meaning “to see a change in color”. Due to the internal structure of opal, it is able to diffract light, so when you look at it from different angles, you can see flashes of rainbow colors. That is referred to as “play of color” and can be commonly seen with CD's and bubbles. Opals also have a wide range of colors, from pink to yellow, and green to blue. The most common ones are white opals and the rarest are black opals.

Opals are believed to have healing and protecting powers. They give people a sense of confidence and hope.

Opal Care Practices: Opal contains 6% to 10% water, so it is a good idea to not expose it to high heat or dry environments, otherwise it might dry out and cracks will appear on the gemstone. You can clean it with mild soapy water and a soft cloth.



Tourmaline is the national gemstone of the United States. It is also a favorite among customers, thanks to its wide variety in color. What makes it special, is the fact that they are bi-colored and multicolored Tourmalines, which are actually more common than Tourmalines of only one color. Some varieties of tourmaline, like Alexandrites, have the ability to change colors under different light settings.

Tourmaline symbolizes courage and thoughtfulness. It will bring the owner success and happiness.

Tourmaline Care Practices: Tourmaline is a fairly tough stone, but just to be safe, avoid ultrasonic and steam cleaners. Instead, clean it with warm soapy water and a soft brush.



Citrine is the other birthstone of November. Many confuse Citrines with golden topazes due to the similarity in color, but in fact, they are two different kinds of gemstones. Citrines belong to the quartz group along with amethysts. The name "Citrine” comes from the color of the gemstone; ranging from a lemon-yellow to orange.

Like the other birthstone of November, Topaz, Citrine can help strengthen the mind and the body. It is believed that it can protect the owner from evil thoughts.

Citrines Care Practices: To be safe, Citrines should not be cleaned by steam cleaners to maintain the color of the gemstones. Ultrasonic cleaners are safe to use, but the preferred way is to use a soft brush and some warm soapy water.



Tanzanite is actually a mineral called the Zoisite. The scientific name for Tanzanite is blue Zoisite, but it was renamed to recognize Tanzania, the only place where Tanzanites can be found. Tanzanites can be found in different shades of blue, and sometimes the gemstones have hues of violet. One property that makes this stone unique, is the fact that it displays different colors depending on the direction you look at it.

This gemstone has a calming effect, so it can help the owner to reduce stress. It is also thought to bring success and vision.

Tanzanite Care Practices: Tanzanites should not be exposed to high heat, so steam cleaners should be avoided. The best way to clean the gemstone is to use warm soapy water and a soft brush.



For the longest time, zircon was used as a substitute for diamonds and topazes, because of its relatively cheap price. Today, more people recognize zircon for its natural beauty. The gemstone is found in several colors like blue, green, and red. A lot of them are colorless and have great brilliance and fire, which was the reason why they were the alternative to diamonds.

Zircon is said to bring prosperity and harmony to the owner. It will also ensure that the owner is happy and healthy.

Zircon Care Practices: In order to preserve the color of the stone, it is best to not expose zircons to high heat. Both steam and ultrasonic cleaners should be avoided, instead, clean the gemstone with a soft brush and warm soapy water.




Gemstone Chart

Gemstone Chart






Typically, gemstones are often attributed to a certain month of the year. They are believed to bring different legends and myths; ranging from healing powers to luck and prosper. Below is the arranged chart for birthstones by the associated month.



 Birthstone List with Associated Month


























Blue Zircon/Tanzanite/Turquoise